Friday, May 22, 2020

The Contemporary Age Of A Novel Written By J. D. Salinger

The Contemporary Age began in the mid 1940’s and is still continuing today. This age was different from the previous ages, but like all ages before it, it had its successes and problems. The Contemporary age has been characterized by wars or the threat of war. This left the American civilians feeling scared. This fear and the life of the American civilian during the Contemporary Age were captured in a novel written by J. D. Salinger. Jerome David Salinger, prompted mainly by his desire to become wealthy, wrote a novel that would cause mass controversy and eventually lead American authors into a new style of writing. The United States changed dramatically during the Contemporary Age. The Contemporary Age began around the time that World†¦show more content†¦They were given these jobs because the men were fighting the war. This development of more freedom showed women that they were capable of working outside the home. They performed their new jobs as well and sometimes better than the men did. This shift in the job for the women of the country, allowed the United States to be more successful during the war. As the war ended, the men returned home. The young men who had fought in the war had lost their innocence. Many were traumatized from the war, but they came back to the United States and wanted to work. Some women gave up their jobs to become housewives again, but most fought for their right to work outside the home. After the war was officially over, a great sense of euphoria was felt throughout the country. The war brought about a boom in the American economy and people were trusting in their government more. Unfortunately for the United States, as World War Two ended, another war was looming. Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union were taking control of Europe and spreading communism. The spread of communism was not good for America. As the U.S. confronted the Soviet Union, to stop the spread of communism, a conflict arose between the two milit ary powers of the world. This conflict is known as the Cold War. The Cold War led to fear, panic, and anxiety, as a nuclear bomb could fall from the sky at any moment of the day. Fortunately,

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Tobacco The Outline Of The Global Public Health Issue

Background information Tobacco: The outline of the global public health issue Cigarette smoking has been well documented to cause a wide range of health conditions such as heart diseases and respiratory problems and it is a major risk factor for getting various kind of cancers (Simpson Nonnemaker, 2013). Besides illness and death, there are several research evidences presenting that cigarette smoking results in less productive life years and accountable for mounting unwanted medical costs. Globally, the preventable deaths caused by tobacco smoking accounts for over 6 million deaths yearly (Wilson et al., 2012). Currently, there are over 1 billion smokers in the world and over 80% of these smokers are living in low and middle income countries (Wilson et al., 2012). This figure is likely to increase to more than 8 million deaths a year by 2030. Sadly, this numbers only communicates that more than 80% of the deaths will be occurring in the developing world. While some countries are facing challenges with the increase in smoking prevalence, many countries are realizing significant reduction in smoking and tobacco-related disease through adoption and implementation of comprehensive tobacco control programs. The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), a multilateral treaty to fight against the tobacco epidemic presents an outline for countries to reduce both the demand and supply of tobacco. Parties to the WHO FCTC undertake severalShow MoreRelatedBy Using Corporate Social Responsibility (Csr) the Tobacco Industry Is Seeking to Change Their Unethical Public Image. Evaluate This Strategy Using Three Ethical Principles of the Global Business Standards Codex.3135 Words   |  13 Pagesthe above declaration has not been signed. ESSAY |Assessment question |By using corporate social responsibility (CSR) the tobacco industry is seeking to change their unethical public | | |image. 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Globally, the preventableRead MoreThe World Health Organization : A Global Public Health Treaty2306 Words   |  10 PagesFCTC The World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is a global public health treaty, developed in response to the globalisation of the â€Å"Tobacco epidemic†, that entered into force in the February of 2005 (World Health Organisation, 2015). As outlined in the convention itself, the aim of the FCTC is to â€Å"...protect present and future generations from the devastating... consequences of tobacco consumption and exposure† (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, 2005)Read MoreThe Philip Morris Tobacco Company Essay1887 Words   |  8 PagesPhillip Morris Phillip Morris The Philip Morris tobacco company started in 1847 on a small street in London (Sanders, Wisse, Van, 2015). One of the primary goals is to be a socially creditworthy company, at both local and global level. 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The tobacco industry contributes largely to the economies of over 150Read MoreThe Food Industry and Self-Regulation: Standards to Promote Success and to Avoid Public Health Failures7346 Words   |  30 PagesFRAMING HEALTH MATTERS The Food Industry and Self-Regulation: Standards to Promote Success and to Avoid Public Health Failures Lisa L. Sharma, MBA, MPH, Stephen P. Teret, JD, MPH, and Kelly D. Brownell, PhD Threatened by possible government regulation and critical public opinion, industries often undertake self-regulatory actions, issue statements of concern for public welfare, and assert that self-regulation is sufï ¬ cient to protect the public. The food industry has made highly visible pledgesRead MoreElectronic Media7567 Words   |  31 Pagesregarded as one of the most influential industries. Unlike some other industries, the Eamp;M sector enjoys direct interaction with people and hence, it has great power to influence people’s mind. Often the industry remains the driving force in building public opinion and determining its trends. Like the other countries of the world, the media industry also plays a very crucial role in India. The media and entertainment industry has come a long way to grow into a modern sector in the country. The largeRead MoreHealth Care Systems in Coumbia, Finland, and United Kingdom2177 Words   |  9 PagesAccording to The Director General of the National Public Health Institute, Professor Pekka Puska health is very important to everyone, individuals and nationals all over the world, but we all have our own perceptions of health and the cultural issues affect strongly to health. Generally we have good health point, but the differences between nations are large. In developed countries people are living longer, at the moment a baby girls life expectancy will be over a hundred years. We have good controlRead MoreLegalization Of Marijuan The Economic Case2418 Words   |  10 Pages DECEMBER 4TH 2014 JOHN WRIGHT ABSTRACT This paper intends to outline the benefits of legalization of marijuana, show the possible negative externalities from making a once illegal drug, fully legal and regulated. It also attempts to address the legalization from a Global perspective, where it has been implemented and how successful it was. This paper gives some feasible regulation policies for future regulationRead MoreThe Impact Of Globalization On Medical Care And Health2082 Words   |  9 Pagescare and health. Given the swift explosion of advances in transportation, communication, technology, and production means, globalization is now a threat to health of persons and their well-being globally. Along with issues domestically, health systems now have to deal with worldwide transferring of risks to health. Along with this rise in permanence has come the worry of locating shared aims in the management of health inequalities for all persons. Infectious diseases spread on a global level are

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Jeffrey Dahmer Free Essays

Jeffrey Dahmer When I was a little kid I was just like anybody else. I was born in Milwaukee in May 21, 1960, the son of Lionel and Joyce Dahmer. At the age of six after some minor surgery, which coincided with the birth of my brother, there seemed to be a change in me. We will write a custom essay sample on Jeffrey Dahmer or any similar topic only for you Order Now At the time a career opportunity for my father resulted in my family moving from Iowa to Ohio. I don’t know why it started. I don’t have any definite answers on that myself. If I knew the true, real reasons why all this started, before it ever did, I wouldn’t probably have done any of it. Though the thoughts were like arrows, shooting through my mind from out of the blue. By the time I was fourteen the compulsions to murder and necrophilia began to occur. I’d rather be talking about anything else in the world right now, but just after I graduated from high school, in June 1978, I picked up a hitchhiker named Steven Hicks, I took him home to my parents’ house, where we drank beer and had sex. When he tried to leave, I killed him with a barbell by hitting his head. That night in Ohio, that was one impulsive night. Nothing’s been normal since then. It tainted my whole life. After it happened I thought I’d just try to live as normally as possible and bury it, but things like that don’t stay buried. I didn’t think it would, but it does, it tainted my whole life. I wish I hadn’t done it. At the same time of my first killing, my alcohol consumption became uncontrollable and in January 1979, I dropped out of Ohio State University after only one term due to my drunkenness. Thus, my recently remarried father insisted that I enlist in the Army, and I was sent to Germany. Though my drinking problem persisted and two years later the Army discharged me for alcoholism. Following my discharge I returned home to Ohio where I went through Hicks’ decomposing remains, pulverized them with a hammer, and scattered the pieces even more widely in the woods. Later in October 1981 I was arrested for disorderly conduct and my father sent me to live with my grandmother in Wisconsin, but my alcohol problems persisted. My next arrest occurred some years later, in September 1986, for masturbating in front of two young boys, for which I received a one-year probationary sentence. In September 1987 I took my second victim, Steven Toumi, whom I met in a gay bar. We checked into a hotel room and drank a lot. I had no intention of doing it. However, the next morning, I found Toumi dead beside me. I was in complete shock. I just couldn’t believe I had done it again after those years when I’d done nothing like that. I don’t know what was going through my mind. I have no memory of it. I tried to dredge it up but I have no memory whatsoever. I bought a large suitcase to transport Toumi’s corpse to my grandmother’s basement, where I had sex with, and masturbated on it, before dismembering it and disposing of the remains in the rubbish. I developed a pattern of murder that persisted for the duration of my thirteen year killing spree: I sought out mostly African-American men at gay meeting places, lured them home to his grandmother’s basement with promises of money or sex, where I would ply them with alcohol laced with drugs, strangle them, have sex with the corpse or masturbate on it, then dismember the corpses and dispose of them, usually keeping their genitals or skulls as souvenirs. I often took photos of each victim at various stages of my murder process, so I could recollect each act afterwards and relive the experience. This re-enactment included assembling the skulls and masturbating in front of them, to achieve gratification. My grandmother eventually tired of the late nights and drunkenness, although she had no knowledge of the other activities, forced me to move out in September 1988, but before that I killed another two people at her house. At this point I had an extreme close call with authorities: I had an encounter with a thirteen-year-old Laotian boy which resulted in charges of sexual exploitation, and second-degree sexual assault, being laid against me. I pleaded guilty, claiming that the boy had appeared much older and, while I awaited sentencing, I moved back in temporarily with my grandmother, where I once again put her basement to gruesome use; in February 1989 I lured an aspiring African-American model, named Anthony Sears, and I drugged, strangled, sodomized, photographed, dismembered and disposed of his body. In May 1989, at my trial for child molestation, to my defense the counsel argued that I needed treatment, not incarceration and the judge agreed, handing down a five year probationary sentence, with one year prison sentence on â€Å"day release†, under which I continued to work at my job, but returned to the prison at night. I was released after ten months, despite my father writing to the judge urging him that I be held until I had received appropriate treatment. Then I spent three months with my grandmother on my release before moving into my own partment in May 1990. During the next fifteen months before the time of my capture, my victim count accelerated; and I killed 12 more young men. I developed rituals as I progressed, experimenting with chemical means of disposal, and I also consumed the flesh of my victims. I drilled into my victim’s skulls while they were still alive, injecting them with Muriatic acid to see whether I could extend my control to the living. Mo st of my victims died instantly, but one man survived for a number of days in a zombie-like state, with limited motor function. I was always careful to select my victims on the fringes of society, so that it was less likely for the police to search for them. In the case of my thirteenth victim I had yet another close call; it was a 14-year-old Laotian boy who was, coincidentally, the younger brother of the boy I had been convicted of molesting three years earlier. To my dismay on May 26, 1991, my neighbor, Sandra Smith, called the police to report that a young Asian boy was running naked in the street. When the police arrived, he was incoherent, and the police believed me when I told them that the boy was my 19-year-old lover who had just had too much to drink. The police escorted me and my victim home at which point I strangled the boy and continued with my usual rituals. My luck finally ran out on July 22, 1991, when two Milwaukee police officers picked up Tracy Edwards, a young African-American, who was wandering in the streets with a handcuff dangling from one of his wrists. They decided to follow up his claims that a â€Å"weird dude† had drugged and restrained him, and they coincidently arrived at my apartment, where I calmly offered to get the keys for the handcuffs. Edwards claimed that the knife I had threatened him with was in the bedroom and when the officer went in to corroborate the story he noticed photographs of dismembered bodies lying around. He shouted to his colleague to restrain me so I fought back but I was eventually subdued. A subsequent search revealed the head in the fridge, as well as three more in the freezer, and preserved skulls, jars containing genitalia, and an extensive gallery of macabre photographs. I think in some way I wanted it to end, even if it meant my own destruction. Yes, I do have remorse, but I’m not even sure myself whether it is as profound as it should be. I’ve always wondered myself why I don’t feel more remorse. I was completely swept away with my own compulsion. I don’t know how else to put it. It didn’t satisfy me completely so I was thinking another one will. Maybe this one will, and the numbers started growing and just got out of control, as you can see. When you’ve done the type of things I’ve done, it’s easier not to reflect on yourself. When I start thinking about how it’s affecting the families of people, and my family and everything, it doesn’t do me any good. It just gets me very upset. Despite having confessed to the killings during police interrogation, I initially pleaded not guilty to all charges. However, against the advice of my legal counsel, I changed my plea to guilty by virtue of insanity. My defense then offered every gruesome detail of my behavior, as proof that only someone insane could commit such terrible acts, but the jury chose to believe the prosecutor’s assertion that I was fully aware that my acts were evil, but that I chose to commit them anyway, which resulted after only five hours deliberation in the finding of me being guilty, but sane, on all counts, on February 17, 1992. I was sentenced to fifteen consecutive life terms, a total of 957 years in prison. I adjusted well to prison life, although I was initially kept apart from the general population. I convinced authorities to allow me to incorporate more with other inmate. On November 28, 1994, in accordance with my inclusion in regular work details, I was assigned to work with two other prisoners, one of whom was a white supremacist murderer, Jesse Anderson, and the other a delusional, schizophrenic African-American murderer, Christopher Scarver. Twenty minutes after we had been left alone to complete their tasks the guards returned to find that Scarver had crushed my skull, and fatally beaten Anderson with an object. Following my death, the city of Milwaukee was keen to distance itself from the horrors of my actions, and the ensuing media circus surrounding my trial. In 1996, fearing that someone else might purchase my fridge, photographs and killing tools collection and start a museum, they raised more than $400,000 to buy his effects, which they promptly incinerated. This is the grand finale of a life poorly spent and the end result is just overwhelmingly depressing, it’s just a sick, pathetic, wretched, miserable life story, that’s all it is. I should have gone to college and gone into real estate and got myself an aquarium, that’s what I should have done. How to cite Jeffrey Dahmer, Papers Jeffrey Dahmer Free Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Marketing Boards Essays - Marketing Board, Agricultural Cooperative

Marketing Boards Introduction Marketing Boards are government involved ways of regulating farmer's production and price, while protecting the overall profit of every farmer in that particular production. Since there is nothing farmers can do about the inelastic nature of the demand for farm products, the key to supporting and stabilizing farm prices and incomes lies in controlling the supply of farm products. In other words, farmers would benefit greatly from an oligopolistic (banning firms together) price and supply agreement among themselves. Farming is a highly competitive industry ? it consists of many small, independent producers selling substantially similar products in a big marketplace. Given these realities, it has proven very difficult to achieve any kind of agreement or coordinated action on the part of farmers, even when it would be in their best interest to do so. Attempts have been made to use farm cooperatives to restrict production and thus support and stabilize prices; however, these efforts rarely work. Such agreements are voluntary and lack means of enforcement; as a result, too many farmers don't participate or break the agreements. This is when farmers turned to government assistance to help with their low and unstable incomes and marketing boards was proposed. In the following we will discuss what marketing boards are, how they work, how they effect the Canadian economy, and how widespread they are. We will focus on particular Canadian producers who use marketing boards and how they are both positive and negative in contributing to the economy. We will also look at how marketing boards are effecting the consumers. In total outlook, the purpose of this review is to provide a clear and explicit focus for the research to be undertaken as well as to establish the scope of the study.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Theodore Roosevelt Essays - Sons Of The American Revolution

Theodore Roosevelt Essays - Sons Of The American Revolution Theodore Roosevelt Outline Thesis: Theodore Roosevelt's political presence altered the course of the United States, transforming it into a superpower fully ready to handle the challenges of any opposition, and changed the role of the president and executive branch of US government, making it a force to be reckoned with. I. Introduction II. Before Roosevelt A. Post-Reconstructionist Views B. The Industrial Revolution C. The Gilded Age 1. Railroads 2. Robber Barons 3. Immigration 4. Standard Question D. McKinley III. The Roosevelt Era A. Early Life 1. Influence of Parents 2. Invalidism B. Early Political Career 1. Ending Corruption/Enforcing Laws 2. Political Bosses 3. Governorship C. Presidential Era 1. Vice Presidential Race 2. Manipulation of the Press 3. Federal Regulatory Laws 4. Foreign Policy 5. Strong Executive Branch D. Post-Presidential Era 1. Taft 2. The Progressive Party IV. Post-Rooseveltian America A. Wilson 1. Continued Progressivism 2. World War I a. Inactivity b. Activity B. Life After Wilson 1. Implementation of Roosevelt's Reforms 2. Roosevelt's Influence Today 3. Influences in the Future V. Conclusion Theodore Roosevelt: The Founder of an Era The turn of the century has always been a big deal for modern civilizations. One hundred years of life is quite large compared with the average 70 or so given to most. Because of that, people tend to look in trends of decades, rather than centuries or millennia. When it does come time for a new century, when that second digit rotates, as it does so seldom, people tend to look for change. Events tend to fall before or after the century, not on top of it, and United States history, particularly, has had a tendency for sudden change at the century marks. Columbus' accidental discovery of the West Indies in 1492 brought on the exploration age in the 1500s. Jamestown colony, founded in 1607, was England's first foothold on the New World. A massive population surge, brought on in part by the import of Africans, marks entry into the 18th century. Thomas Jefferson's presidency, beginning in 1800, changed the face of American politics. 1900 was a ripe year for change, but needed someone to help the change arrive. That someone was Theodore Roosevelt. Roosevelt's political presence altered the course of the United States, transforming it into a superpower fully ready to handle the challenges of any opposition, and changed the role of the president and executive branch of US government, making it a force with which to be reckoned. As the first president with progressive views, Roosevelt enacted the first regulatory laws and prosecuted big businesses who had been violating them and others for years. Roosevelt also initiated the United States' active interests in other countries, and began to spread the benefits of democracy throughout the world. Before Roosevelt, the United States was an inward-looking country, largely xenophobic to the calls of the rest of the world, and chiefly concerned with bettering itself. As one critic put it, "Roosevelt was the first modern president"(Knoll). After Roosevelt, the United States would remain a superpower, chiefly interested in all the world's affairs for at least a century (Barck 1). It would be foolish to assume that Roosevelt was a fantastically powerful individual who was able to change the course of the United States as easily as Superman might change the course of a river. It would be more accurate to say Roosevelt was the right person in the right place at the right time. It is necessary, though, to show how the United States was progressing, and how Roosevelt's presence merely helped to catalyze the progression. It has been said that when John Wilkes Booth murdered Abraham Lincoln, he "extinguished the light of the republic" (Cashman 1). While this is a small hyperbole, it serves as an example of the general mood that pervaded the period from 1865 to 1901. The early dominating factor was, of course, Reconstruction. Reconstruction was a dirty game, and nobody liked it. Johnson fought with congress and the end result proved very little had changed. The South was still largely agrarian, and the North was commercial. Most importantly, the Southerners and the Northerners still felt they had as little to do with each other as a fish does with a bicycle. To the young "Teedie" Roosevelt, this must have made itself apparent. He was born in a mixed household, where "Theodore Roosevelt (Sr.) was as profoundly...for the North as Martha Roosevelt was for the south" (Hagedorn 10). The fact that the family was able to live, from all accounts, very harmoniously, is

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Low Self-Esteem Linked to Domestic Violence

Low Self-Esteem Linked to Domestic Violence In many cases, self-esteem and domestic violence  go hand in hand. Low self-esteem can be brought on by a variety of factors and can be a serious issue for women (and men) who are victims of domestic violence. Contrary to what many believe, domestic violence is not just about physical violence. It can also include sexual abuse, emotional abuse, financial abuse, and stalking. Basically, domestic violence offenders always feel the need to be in control of their victims. The less in control an offender feels, the more they want to hurt others. If victims of domestic violence have low self-esteem, it can cause them to stay in an abusive relationship. This can lead to serious injuries and even death. Maria Phelps, a survivor of brutal domestic violence and the blogger behind A Movement Against Domestic Violence, notes: Self-esteem alone cannot combat domestic violence. A woman with high self-esteem can be affected by domestic violence, but I feel that the woman with better self-image will be more empowered to leave a relationship where there is abuse, and that is the important thing to focus on. Women with low self-esteem feel that they cannot do better than the situation they are in, which makes them far less likely to leave than a woman who has high self-esteem and can stand up for herself. Domestic violence offenders tend to prey on women who have low self-esteem, realizing that the victim will want and need them no matter what they do. Because of the connection between self-esteem and domestic violence, it is critical to teach children about self-esteem. According to Overcoming.co.uk, a website that focuses on mental health issues, â€Å"Crucial experiences that help to form our beliefs about ourselves often (although not always) occur early in life.† It is, therefore, essential that children are introduced to the concept of self-esteem at an early age. In order to help prevent domestic violence in future generations, children need to understand if what they are feeling is healthy and learn positive ways to feel better about themselves. Alexis A. Moore, founder of Survivors In Action, observes: Women don’t leave because of fear and self-esteem. Most women, if we ask them to say the truth, are fearful of going out on their own. It’s a self-esteem issue primarily that is compounded by fear that they can’t make it alone without their batterer. Offenders are very aware of this and use it to their advantage. If an abuser feels that his partner is becoming more empowered to leave, hell turn on the charm to convince the victim that he actually does love her, then take something away from her to control and dominate her. That something could be the victim’s right to money or privacy or any number of other rights. He may tell the victim that shes nothing compared to him, causing the victim to feel vulnerable and afraid. Even if a victim seems like she has nothing else to lose, an offender can still find something to control and that usually has a significant impact on the victim’s self-esteem, causing her to stay with her abuser for just that little bit longer. Women dealing with domestic violence need to remember that they are not alone. Friends and family members of victims should provide ongoing reminders that they can get out of the situation and lead a normal life. Victims need support to feel empowered to live a life free of violence. Phelps, who was battered for years by her husband a teacher and a martial arts black belt knows how hard it is to leave. Yet she has one response to domestic violence victims who ask what they should do: The only answer to this question is to run. It is never the right choice to stay in a relationship where there is abuse involved. A victim of domestic violence should form a safety plan and get out of the situation at the first chance they can. Every victim of domestic violence needs to remember that it doesn’t matter how small and vulnerable your attacker makes you feel. You are worth more and deserve to be treated with respect and dignity, just like everyone else.

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Religion and politics in the United States Research Paper

Religion and politics in the United States - Research Paper Example Ground Zero became a symbol for American perseverance and a shrine for all the lives lost in the tragedy. Ten years later, plans have been made to build a mosque near the site which has caused much strife in the American public. The construction of an identity that is rejected by the traditional American has been the result. This society is based on the exclusion of those who oppose the dominant ideology as opposed to including diverse ideology out of appreciation. Indeed the history of the U.S. has been a history of the exclusion of various groups at multiple points throughout the history of the nation. The current conflict is merely an extention of previous conflicts manifested with a new enemy. The best means of fully understanding this conflict is through an analysis of current and historical events, social transformations, and American narratives. The plans to build the 100 million dollar mosque were headlined by Sharif El-Gamal who has stood for religious freedom in the face of adversity and hate (Baum, 2011). In fact, recent polls indicated that most New York inhabitants did not want to have a mosque near the cite (Baum, 2011). In spite of this, Michael Bloomberg defended religious freedom by stating that â€Å"there is no neighborhood in this city off-limits to God's love and mercy (Baum, 2011)." On the opposite side of the table was Pamela Geller who is a conservative activist that leverages her blog, Atlas Shrugs, to attack El-Gamal for being a front man for the money behind the project as well as for Islamic supremacist who believe in constructing a mosque near the site of a war victory (Baum, 2011). Ironically, a current candidate for president, Donald Trump, used money as an incentive to attempt to get the mosque moved to a different location. In response, El-Gamal asked, "Are we supposed to move so we can create a Muslim-free zone, Muslim-free blocks (Baum, 2011)?" He was furious with the notion that the criminal act that occurred on September 11 th is a representation of all Muslims. In terms of the historical relationship between Islam and Christianity, the two communities have shared conflict and feuds. The reason why Islam is being compared to Christianity is because it is the primary religion in the U.S (Gaustad, 2004). Empirical examples that prove this to be true is the fact that currency holds that â€Å"In God We Trust† and each day we pledge allegiance, it is â€Å"Under God†. When these two concepts came under heat by activist, it was the Christians that stood in defense of the terms. Much like that situation, Christian sects are arising to contest the establishment of the mosque (Sachedina, 2001). This conflicts stems all the way back to the year 1095 where the first crusades began. The crusades were a series of religiously sanctioned wars where followers fought over a rite of passage (Stokes, 1950). It seems as if Christianity is consistently attempt to stop the spread of Islam as is proven in the Crusades where the cause was because of the attempt to recapture Jerusalem from Muslim rule. While Jerusalem served as the birthplace of the Christian figure Jesus, It serves as the point of ascension into heaven for the Islamic figure Muhammad. In fact, the Bill of Rights already settles the issue concerning the mosque by establishing Freedom of Religion as an essential right of all Americans (Stokes, 1950). It states that Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof (Mutua, 2004). This means that the formation of the country was more geared towards the free exercise of religion as opposed to the persecution of individuals who don’